“DIPIPMTM is the abbreviation of Dual In-Line Intelligent Power Module, which was officially introduced to the market by Mitsubishi Electric in 1997 and has been widely used in household appliances, industrial and automotive air conditioners. This lecture mainly introduces the basics, functions, applications and failure analysis skills of DIPIPMTM, aiming to help readers understand and use the product correctly.
DIPIPMTM is the abbreviation of Dual In-Line Intelligent Power Module, which was officially introduced to the market by Mitsubishi Electric in 1997 and has been widely used in household appliances, industrial and automotive air conditioners. This lecture mainly introduces the basics, functions, applications and failure analysis skills of DIPIPMTM, aiming to help readers understand and use the product correctly.
1.2. IGBT/IPM/DIPIPMTM Definition and Application Basis (2)
1.2.3. IGBT module definition and application basis
The so-called IGBT module is an IGBT assembly formed by connecting two or more IGBT chips according to a certain topology structure and encapsulating them into the same insulating resin shell together with the auxiliary circuit. Compared with discrete IGBTs, it has many advantages such as small size, light weight, compact structure, high reliability, simple external wiring, and easy maintenance and installation. At the same time, the standardized design of IGBT module package allows users to choose IGBT modules with greater freedom. . IGBT modules occupy a major position in medium and high power power conversion devices. Figures 9 and 10 are the pictures and topology diagrams of the 2-cell and 6-cell IGBT modules, respectively.
Compared with discrete IGBTs, power conversion devices using IGBT modules have been greatly improved in terms of integration, compactness of structure, and ease of installation and maintenance. At the same time, since multiple IGBTs packaged inside share the same heat sink, the design of the heat sink is very important. In terms of difficulty, compared with discrete IGBTs, it can be seen from Figure 11 that the entire IGBT module can share a radiator with the rectifier bridge, and the cooling system is simple and compact. However, compared with discrete IGBTs, there is no significant improvement in drive circuit design. Figure 12 is a schematic diagram of the drive of an optocoupler-driven IGBT module. The IGBT module drive requires a more complex drive and protection circuit, and requires a long design and verification time. In the event of overcurrent, short circuit, undervoltage, overtemperature and other faults, if the protection is not timely, the IGBT module will be damaged, which will seriously affect the reliability of the power conversion device, which also limits the IGBT module in some areas that require high reliability. Applications.
1.2.4. IPM definition and application basis
IPM is the abbreviation of Intelligent Power Module (Intelligent Power Module). It encapsulates IGBT together with its driving circuit and various protection circuits in the same module through optimized design, so that designers of power conversion devices can avoid cumbersome IGBT driving and protection circuits. It is freed from the design, which greatly reduces the application difficulty of power semiconductor devices, shortens the design cycle, and improves the reliability of the system.
IGBT has played an important role in various fields of power conversion since its birth, from traditional household appliances, industrial frequency converters, power inverters, electric welding machines and other fields to new high-speed rails, robots, high-voltage power transmission and transformation, and electric vehicles. IGBTs can be seen in new fields such as these, and these new fields have higher and higher requirements for IGBT reliability. Due to the inherent characteristics of IGBT devices, if overcurrent, short circuit, and overvoltage cannot be protected in time, it is often in ten In a few microseconds or even a few microseconds, the IGBT will be damaged, resulting in a shutdown accident of the power conversion system. In order to solve the deficiencies of IGBT in drive protection and reliability, in the 1990s, engineers from Mitsubishi Electric proposed the concept of IPM, which encapsulates the drive and various protection circuits in the same module to improve the deficiencies in IGBT drive protection. . IPM was first successfully developed and mass-produced in the Japanese market, and then it has been widely used in industrial inverters, servo drives and inverter air conditioners, and has achieved great success. It has become another epoch-making new power semiconductor device.
Figure 13 below shows the main technical improvements of the IPM module compared to the IGBT module
It can be seen from Figure 13 that compared with the IGBT module, in the IPM application process, it is no longer necessary for the user to design the driving protection circuit by himself, and the driving and protection of the IGBT are completed by the internal circuit of the IPM. Figure 14 is a picture and internal structure diagram of a two-unit IPM module.
The IPM module has a built-in drive protection circuit. The built-in drive circuit makes it unnecessary for the user to design an IGBT drive circuit that requires positive and negative power supplies, and also does not need to design a short-circuit current detection circuit and an over-temperature protection circuit, which will greatly simplify the PCB design. At the same time, the evaluation time of the entire power conversion device is greatly shortened, which helps users to launch new products quickly. In addition to short-circuit protection and over-temperature protection functions, IPM also has control power supply under-voltage protection, fault signal output functions, and perfect protection functions, which greatly improves the reliability of power conversion devices using IPM. Especially in the fields with high performance and reliability requirements, such as elevator inverter, UPS power supply, servo controller, etc., IPM is widely used. In terms of heat dissipation design, the internal IGBT units of the IPM can share the same radiator, and the built-in IGBT chip temperature sensor can monitor the temperature of the 6 IGBT chips in real time. Makes IPM more reliable than IGBT modules in terms of thermal design. The price paid for improving the reliability of the IPM is that the design and manufacture are relatively complex and the cost is high. Figure 15 is a diagram of the internal structure of a 6-unit IPM.
1.2.5. DIPIPMTM Definition and Features
In the first lecture, we learned about the classification of power devices and the history of their development. In this lecture, we focused on the concept of IGBT and IPM, application points, and the evolution process of discrete IGBT → IGBT module → IPM. The introduction of the above basic knowledge of power semiconductor devices is to better understand the product DIPIPMTM and its applications, which are highlighted in the following lectures. DIPIPMTM is the English abbreviation of dual in-line intelligent power module. It can be said that DIPIPMTM is a miniaturized IPM. It adopts injection molding package, built-in HVIC, and the peripheral circuit becomes simpler and cost-effective. Compared with IPM, it has many features of its own. Figure 16 below shows the comparison between DIPIPMTM and IPM application circuit. For DIPIPMTM, it has built-in HVIC, the optocoupler is no longer required for isolation in the application circuit, the bootstrap circuit is used, and only a single 15V control power supply is required. Figure 17 shows the comparison of the internal circuit structure and advantages and disadvantages of DIPIPMTM and IPM. Compared with IPM, DIPIPMTM is easier to design and use, with lower cost, and is especially suitable for mass manufacturing and application.
The development of DIPIPMTM can be traced back to the 1990s, and it continues to grow with the development of low-power frequency conversion applications, especially in the field of frequency conversion home appliances, where it occupies a very high market share. In the next lecture, we will focus on the development history of DIPIPMTM → structural characteristics → selection principles → circuit design → evaluation methods → health management → production management → application skills and other aspects to carry out detailed discussions, so stay tuned…
Summary of this lecture:
1) IGBT chip is the core of IGBT discrete device, IGBT module, IPM, DIPIPMTM and other related devices. To give full play to the performance of the device, it is necessary to better understand the turn-on and turn-off characteristics of the device and the relationship between these characteristics and the parasitic parameters of the device. Relationship.
2) For the practical application of discrete IGBTs, drive protection design and heat dissipation design are the two most important technical points, which are crucial to the operation of the device and the reliability and life of the power conversion device.
3) The IGBT module driver needs to design a more complex driving and protection circuit, and requires a long design and verification time.
4) IPM encapsulates the IGBT together with its drive circuit and various protection circuits in the same module through optimized design, which greatly reduces the application difficulty of power semiconductor devices, shortens the design cycle, and improves the reliability of the system.
5) DIPIPM is the English abbreviation of dual in-line intelligent module. It can be said that DIPIPM is a miniaturized IPM, but compared with IPM, it has many features of its own, which is easier to use and lower in cost.
Yuan Liqiang, Zhao Zhengming, Song Gaosheng, Wang Zhengyuan; “The Principle and Application of Power Semiconductor Devices”